General Wine Terms

Acidity
Aftertaste
Aging
Alcohol Content
Alcoholic Fermentation
Aperitif
Aroma
Baccus
Balance
Barrel Fermentation
Blush Wine
Body
Botrytis Cinerea
Bouquet
Breathe
Carbonic Maceration
Claret
Cloudy
Color
Cork
Corkscrew
Decant
Dessert Wine
Dionysus
Fermentation
Finish
Fortified Wine
Fruit
Ice Wine
Late Harvest
Lees
Legs
Magnum
Malolactic Fermentation
Marsala
Must
Non-Varietal Wine
Nose
Oak
Oxidized
Palate
Place Name
Port
Punt
Reserve
Rice Wine
Sangria
Sediment
Sherry
Skin
Sparkling Wine
Sulfites
Table Wine
Tank
Tannins
Tears
Terroir
Varietal Wine
Vat
Vermouth
Vin
Vineyard
Vinification
Vino
Wein
Yeast
Tasting Terms

Acrid
Aggressive
Assertive
Astringent
Attractive
Balanced
Big
Bite
Bitter
Buttery
Chewy
Closed
Cloying
Complete
Complex
Concentrated
Cooked
Corked
Crisp
Deep
Delicate
Developed
Diffuse
Dry
Dumb
Earthy
Empty
Faded
Fatigue
Flinty
Fruity
Grapey
Hard
Harsh
Heady
Heavy
Light
Murky
Musty
Oaky
Off
Perfume
Potent
Robust
Round
Sharp
Short
Silky
Simple
Smokey
Smooth
Soft
Solid
Spicy
Steely
Supple
Sweet
Tar
Tart
Thin
Velvety
Vinous
Woody
Young
Zesty

Carbonic Maceration


  

General Wine Term


Carbonic maceration is a method of grape fermentation that creates light, fruity wines, particularly out of red grapes that are known for making big, heavy wines. It is also referred to as *whole berry fermentation* and *whole grape fermentation*. In the normal fermentation process, grapes are crushed in a tank then fermented with yeast. During carbonic maceration, however, entire bunches of grapes (with the skins, seeds and stems intact) are gently placed in a vat. Gravity causes the grapes at the bottom of the barrel to be crushed by the grapes at the top. The crushed grapes release carbon dioxide, which ferments the uncrushed grapes at the top. (Alternatively, carbon dioxide gas can be manually added to a vat of uncrushed grapes.) The contact of carbon dioxide with the uncrushed grapes causes fermentation of the juice while it is still within the grape skin and postpones the activity of the yeast. The resulting wine is low in tannins and high in fruit. Winemakers utilize carbonic maceration to create light, red wines that are attractive and can be drunk immediately. As a result, wines that undergo this process will not age well and should be drank while young. Carbonic maceration is most commonly used in the Beaujolais region.





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Red Grapes

Barbera
Brunello
Cabernet Franc
Cabernet Sauvignon
Carignane
Carmenere
Chambourcin
Cinsault
Dolcetto
Durif
Gamay
Grenache
Grignolino
Malbec
Merlot
Montepulciano
Mourvèdre
Nebbiolo
Norton
Petit Sirah
Petit Verdot
Pinot Meunier
Pinot Noir
Pinotage
Pourtgieser
Primitivo
Sangiovese
Schwarzriesling
Syrah, or Shiraz
Tempranillo
Tinta Barroca
Tinta Cao
Tinta Roriz
Touriga Francesa
Touriga Nacional
Zinfandel

Wine Basics

Buying
Storage
Temperature
Bad Wine
New or Old World
Visiting Vineyards

Beyond Basics

Pouilly-Fumé v. Pouilly-Fuissé
German Classifications
South African Wine - Jon's Dissertation

White Grapes

Aligoté
Chardonnay
Chenin Blanc
Columbard
Folle Blanche
Gewuztraminer
Grüner Veltliner
Malvasia
Marsanne
Melon de Bourgogne
Moscofilero
Muller-Thurgau
Muscadelle
Muscat
Palomino
Pedro Ximénez
Pinot Blanc
Pinot Gris
Riesling
Rousanne
Sauvignon Blanc
Scheurebe
Semillon
Sylvaner
Trebbiano
Ugni Blanc
Verdicchio
Viognier
Welschriesling

Regions

Alsace
Beaujolais
Bordeaux
Burgundy
Champagne
Côtes du Rhône - R. Valley
Languedoc-Roussillon
Loire Valley
Provence
Savoie
Southwest

Wine References